Prior to the Dutch arriving in present-day New Jersey, the Lenni Lenape inhabited the area known as Marlboro. On February 17, 1848, the New Jersey Legislature incorporated the town, naming it Marlborough after the prevalent deposits of the stone in the town. Somewhere along the line, residents spelled the town's name interchangeably as Marlborough and Marlboro, eventually settling on the latter.

Until World War 2, Marlboro consisted primarily of dairy, potato, tomato, and other farms. During the war, the farms switched to producing eggs for the military. After WW2, Marlboro began to grow and farms were replaced with housing developments. By the 1970s, Marlboro became known as a growing suburb with a large number of commuters due to its convenient location near New York City and other cities.

Today, Marlboro is known for its school districts, dedication to preserving its history, and significant amounts of open space.

The Marlboro School District consists of one preschool, five elementary schools, and two middle schools. Marlboro High School is a part of the Freehold Regional High School District. As a member of Freehold Regional High School District, Marlboro High School participates in the districts magnet program and houses the Business Administration Learning Center for high performing students with interests in business and management. In 2014, Newsweek ranked Marlboro High School 46th in the nation and 6th in New Jersey.

Marlboro is also home to 18 well preserved historic sites, including Beacon Hill and the Dutch Reformed chapel. For residents who want to exercise, Marlboro has 13 sites featuring a variety of athletic fields and aquatic centers. However, some locations require a membership fee or a permit. For residents who enjoy biking, rollerblading, running, or walking, part of the Henry Hudson Trail's Southern Extension runs from Freehold to Marlboro and Aberdeen. The town also has an off-leash dog park and fossil beds, which contain fossils from the Late Cretaceous period, that are open to the public.